Speaking Final Assignment



History of Public Speaking

Early training in public speaking took place in ancient Egypt. The first known Greek work[ on oratory, written over 2000 years ago, elaborated principles drawn from the practices and experience of orators in the ancient Greek city-states. In classical Greece and Rome, the main component was rhetoric (that is, composition and delivery of speeches), and was an important skill in public and private life. Aristotle and Quintilian discussed oratory, and the subject, with definitive rules and models, was emphasized as a part of a liberal arts education during the Middle Ages and Renaissance.

The art of public speaking was first developed by the ancient Greeks. Greek oration is known from the works of classical antiquity. Greek orators spoke as on their own behalf rather as representatives of either a client or a constituency, and so any citizen who wished to succeed in court, in politics, or in social life had to learn techniques of public speaking. These skills were taught first by a group of self-styled "sophists" who were known to charge fees, to "make the weaker argument the stronger," and to make their students "better" through instruction in excellence. Plato, Aristotle, and Isocrates all developed theories of public speaking in opposition to the Sophists, and their ideas took on institutional form through the development of permanent schools where public speaking was taught. Though Greece eventually lost political sovereignty, the Greek culture of training in public speaking was adopted virtually wholesale by the Romans.

With the political rise of the Roman Republic, Roman orators copied and modified Greek techniques of public speaking. Under Roman influence, instruction in rhetoric developed into a full curriculum including instruction in grammar (study of the poets), preliminary exercises (progymnasmata), and preparation of public speeches (declamation) in both forensic and deliberative genres. The Latin style was heavily influenced by Cicero, and involved a strong emphasis on a broad education in all areas of humanistic study (in the liberal arts, including philosophy), as well as on the use of wit and humor, on appeal to the listener's emotions, and on digressions (often used to explore general themes related to the specific topic of the speech). Oratory in the Roman empire, though less central to political life than in the days of the Republic, remained important in law, and became (under the second Sophistic) an important form of entertainment, with famous orators or declaimers gaining great wealth and prestige for their skills.

This Latin style was the primary form of oration in the world until the beginning of the 20th century. After World War II there began a gradual deprecation of the Latin style of oration. With the rise of the scientific method and the emphasis on a "plain" style of speaking and writing, even formal oratory has become less polished and ornate than in the Classical period, though politicians today can still make or break their careers on the basis of a successful (or unsuccessful) speech. Abraham Lincoln, Adolf Hitler, Marcus Garvey, John F. Kennedy, and Bill Clinton all advanced their careers in large part due to their skills in oratory.

These basic principles have undergone modification as societies, and cultures have changed, yet remained surprisingly uniform. The technology and the methods of this form of communication have traditionally been through oratory structure and rely on an audience. However, new advances in technology have allowed for more sophisticated communication for speakers and public orators. The technological and media sources that assist the public-speaking atmosphere include both videoconferencing and telecommunications. Videoconferencing is among one of the more recent technologies that is in a way revolutionizing the way that public speakers communicate to the masses. David M. Fetterman of Stanford University wrote in his 1997 article Videoconferencing over the Internet: "Videoconferencing technology allows geographically disparate parties to hear and see each other usually through satellite or telephone communication systems". This technology is helpful for large conference meetings and face-to-face communication contexts, and is becoming more widespread across the world.

1.)    I personally think that public speaking is a process to deliver our speech in front of people  in formal or non formal situation. Base on a source that I found from the internet said that “Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the listeners. It is closely allied to "presenting", although the latter has more of a commercial connotation”. In public speaking, as in any form of communication, there are five basic elements, often expressed as "who is saying what to whom using what medium with what effects?" The purpose of public speaking can range from simply transmitting information, to motivating people to act, to simply telling a story. Good orators should be able to change the emotions of their listeners, not just inform them. Public speaking can also be considered a discourse community. Interpersonal communication and public speaking have several components that embrace such things as motivational speaking, leadership/personal development, business, customer service, large group communication, and mass communication. Public speaking can be a powerful tool to use for purposes such as motivation, influence, persuasion, informing, translation, or simply entertaining. A confident speaker is more likely to use this as excitement and create effective speech thus increasing their overall ethos.

Types of Public speaking, those are:

1.      Impromptu-"on the spot speaking", without any idea what would be the topic is.

2.      Debate-"pro and anti speech" wherein 2 places are defending their sides based on the topic      given. eg: do filipina's need to go abroad to work?

3.      Manuscript-"scripted speech" wherein you are reading a piece that is properly and clearly written.

4.      Extemporaneous - Being able to take information/research and quickly assimilate it into a public speech to persuade others regarding a particular issue or concern. Lawyers, politicians, and debaters would obviously need very good skills "thinking on their feet" with this kind of public  speaking.

5.      Storytelling - Being able to tell a story in a entertaining and engaging way. Your goal is to capture the audiences attention. 

6.      Informative - This category is fairly self-explanatory. Informative speeches are meant to inform. You'll find these at technology conferences, scientific conventions, idea seminars, business meetings, and other times when speakers introduce new information. Specificity and accuracy are key to delivering effective informative speeches.If you specialize in a skill or trade, you may need to speak publically to educate and inform others of your job, skills, and the procedures you might use to perform some type of service. In the Utah cave tragedy... there has been debate about who should have been providing information about the search and rescue that was being done to help the trapped miners. The boss was doing a lot of the informing of the public... but, many felt the specialists who handle these kinds of emergency situations should have stepped up and been the link to the public. 

7.      Poetry - Whether you read or recite it... many people love to hear poetry in clubs and social events. 

8.      News casting/ Broadcasting - This is mostly a professional kind of public speaking that involves media - radio, newspaper, magazine, television, and Internet forums obviously. 

9.      Persuasive - A persuasive speech is meant to convince people of an idea or to commit them to action. You'll find these speeches in sales, politics, religion, and other arenas where viewpoint and action are paramount. A persuasive speech is most effective when it appeals to the audience on both the emotional and logical level, and then presents to the audience a specific action. Debates and speeches given for certain forums use this method. It is designed too hook interest about some sort of dilemma and the speaker's responsibility is to persuade the listener of his/her point of view - and to action. A person might give a speech about a health care issue, and persuade an audience to give monetarily to help with research. Or, two candidates for public office debate each other in front of an audience to present their policies and promises.

10.  Entertaining - The purpose is solely to entertain people...make them laugh, make them cry and/or stimulate there emotions in some way. A play, a musical or movie... these often involve narratives and other types of speeches to convey information or a character's thought process. 

11.  Specialized - A doctor giving a lecture at a convention, or a special teacher instructing regular teachers regarding issues a disabled child might have.... these kinds of public speaking forums are designed to teach professionals. Demonstrations are often used to help show others what to do, and how to do it...in a given situation. 

12.  Ceremonial - These speeches include toasts, recitations, graduation speeches, and other formal events. They must be tailored to the occasion and to the people present. At a funeral or wedding, awards ceremony, graduation, baptisms, swearing in...and other times in which people are honored, remembered, or some sort of important event that needs to be witnessed and represents a new part of a person's life.

2). In my opinion, there are several ways that we can do to getting started our speech. These are some suggestion to get stated our speech.

1.     A story. Touching stories that make audience members feel involved with the topic serve as good attention-getters. You should tell a story with feeling and deliver it directly to the audience instead of reading it off your note cards. For example: the crowd was wild. The music was booming. The sun was shining. The cash registers were ringing.

2.     Rhetorical question. Rhetorical question are question designed to arouse curiosity without requiring an answer. Either the answer will be obvious, or if isn’t apparent, the question will arouse curiosity until the presentation provides the answer. For example: for a speech about fly-fishing is, “have you ever stood in a freezing river at 5 o’clock in the morning by choice?”

3.      Quotation. A quotation from a famous person or from an expert on your topic can gain the attention of the audience. The use of quotation immediately launches you into the speech and focuses the audience on your topic area. If it is from a well-known source, cite the author first. If the source is obscure, begin with the quote itself. For example: “A man reserves his true and deepest love not for the species of woman in whose company he finds himself electrified and enkindled, but for that one in whose company he may feel tenderly drowsy" by George Jean Nathan, supports may belief to love is……..”. Isaac D'Israeli, a 19th-century British writer and scholar once said, "The wisdom of the wise, and the experience of ages, may be perpetuated by quotation." We can't be entirely sure, but there is a good chance he was referring to speaking as the best man at his old frat brother's wedding. Even if not, he is onto something: A good quotation can set the stage for a good speech, or even close one out in style, encapsulating your feelings and thoughts, passing on your unique wisdom and experience to the newlyweds and the assembled masses. Because you are nothing if not wise, as is evidenced by your trip to our website, it's good that you are thinking of the best ways to use quotes and not just dropping them into your speech, willy-nilly. A good quote is a powerful tool, but only when, like most power tools, used safely and with great care. First, there is the matter of usage. You want the quote to be a seamless entry-point or concluding illustration of the speech's main points. It should pique interest, perk ears, incite a smile, or even moisten the eyes. But, most important, it should do so smoothly. It needs-critically-a good lead-in ("I wish I had come up with these fitting words on my own, but Neil Diamond said it best when he said, 'Good times never felt so good.'"- the intro to that quote is a good lead-in. Whether you are a "Sweet Caroline" fan or not (and, really, who isn't?) you should be able to see how that construction could be a smooth jumping-off point for the unbridled wisdom and unfettered hilarity yet to come in the rest of your speech.

4.      Unusual statement. Making a statement that is unusual to the ears of your listeners is another possibility for gaining their attention. For example: My mother was born with horns.

5.      Humor. You might choose to tasteful humor which relates to the topic as an effective way to attract the audience both to you and the subject at hand. For example: “So there are three guys walked to the restaurant…..”. Like the best things in life, landing a truly good joke is incredibly rewarding, yet terribly difficult to achieve. Best man speech writing put this challenge into sharp relief: You are not a professional comedian (at least we don't think you are), but everyone at that wedding will expect you to be funny. How can you reconcile this? How can you ensure that the wedding guests are hearing a good-natured, humorous toast to a dear friend and his chosen mate for life, and not a buh-dum-dum-pushhh evening at the Improve? Most important: How do you move inside jokes to the outside, giving them relevance beyond the barstools or dorm rooms from whence they came? Many of the jokes-or even stories-in a best man speech are necessarily of the inside variety. Inside jokes and personal anecdotes often form the core of relationships, providing code words and mental scrapbooks that create the unique bond you share with the man you are about to celebrate-the folklore of your friendship. Like all good folklore, it's time to pass some of yours down, only this time to a large audience, half of whom may barely know you or your buddy. There are keys to making this work, and to avoiding a crowd stunned in silence, while only you and the groom laugh hysterically about that one time you guys wore a hair net and roller skates. Just don't embarrass anyone too much. It's typically not enjoyable for the groom, his new wife, or the assembled (now unsettled) masses to be squirming after some inappropriate story. It'll ruin the joyous mood of the occasion, create awkward tension in what should be a carefree environment, and, perhaps most important, also provide fodder for when he has to speak at your wedding. If anything, don't open yourself up to revenge. 

6.      Shocking Statistic. Another possibility to consider is the use of a factual statistic intended to grab your listener’s attention. As your research the topic you have picked, keep your eyes open for statistic that will help impact. For example: “Fifty American die every hour from diseases related to smoking cigarettes”.

7.      Demonstration. Do something. If your speech is about something that can be explained through movement, give the audience a “taste”. 

3). There are three steps we should organize our speech. The first is Opening. The first thirty seconds of your speech are probably the most important. In that period of time you must grab the attention of the audience, and engage their interest in what you have to say in your speech. This can be achieved in several ways. For example you could raise a thought-provoking question, make an interesting or controversial statement, recite a relevant quotation or even recount a joke. Once you have won the attention of the audience, your speech should move seamlessly to the middle of your speech. The next step is Body. The body of your speech will always be the largest part of your speech. At this point your audience will have been introduced to you and the subject of your speech (as set out in your opening) and will hopefully be ready to hear your arguments, your thoughts or even your ramblings on the subject of your speech. The best way to set out the body of your speech is by formulating a series of points that you would like to raise. In the context of your speech, a "point" could be a statement about a product, a joke about the bridegroom or a fond memory of the subject of a eulogy. The points should be organized so that related points follow one another so that each point builds upon the previous one. This will also give your speech a more logical progression, and make the job of the listener a far easier one. Don't try to overwhelm your audience with countless points. It is better to make a small number of points well than to have too many points, none of which are made satisfactorily. And the last is Closing. Like your Opening, the Closing of your speech must contain some of your strongest material. You should view the closing of your speech as an opportunity. It is an opportunity to: Summarize the main points of your speech, provide some further food for thought for your listeners, leave your audience with positive memories of your speech, and end with a final thought/emotion (e.g. With well wishes to the Bride and Groom, With fond memories of a departed friend, With admiration for winners and losers at an awards ceremony).

4). Absolutely necessary. Because without preparation we can not deliver the purpose of our       speech very well. We will make a big mistake. When  you are presenting in front of audience,  you are performing as an actor in stage. Speech preparation is the most important element to a successful presentation, and also the best way to reduce nervousness and combat fear. The Speech Preparation Series is a series of articles examining each of the six steps which are necessary to properly prepare for a speech. Here some suggestion to prepare your speech very well. Body language is important. Standing, walking or moving about with appropriate hand gesture or facial expression is preferred to sitting down or standing still with head down and reading from a prepared speech. Use audio-visual aids or props for enhancement if appropriate and necessary. Master the use of presentation software such as PowerPoint well before your presentation. Do not over-dazzle your audience with excessive use of animation, sound clips, or gaudy colors which are inappropriate for your topic. Do not torture your audience by putting a lengthy document in tiny print on an overhead and reading it out to them. Speak with conviction as if you really believe in what you are saying. Persuade your audience effectively. The material you present orally should have the same ingredients as that which are required for a written research paper, i.e. a logical progression from INTRODUCTION (Thesis statement) to BODY (strong supporting arguments, accurate and up-to-date information) to CONCLUSION (re-state thesis, summary, and logical conclusion). Do not read from notes for any extended length of time although it is quite acceptable to glance at your notes infrequently. Speak loudly and clearly. Sound confident. Do not mumble. If you made an error, correct it, and continue. No need to make excuses or apologize profusely. Maintain sincere eye contact with your audience. Use the 3-second method, e.g. look straight into the eyes of a person in the audience for 3 seconds at a time. Have direct eye contact with a number of people in the audience, and every now and then glance at the whole audience while speaking. Use your eye contact to make everyone in your audience feel involved. Speak to your audience, listen to their questions, respond to their reactions, adjust and adapt. If what you have prepared is obviously not getting across to your audience, change your strategy mid-stream if you are well prepared to do so. Remember that communication is the key to a successful presentation. If you are short of time, know what can be safely left out. If you have extra time, know what could be effectively added. Always be prepared for the unexpected. Pause. Allow yourself and your audience a little time to reflect and think. Don't race through your presentation and leave your audience, as well as yourself, feeling out of breath.  Add humor whenever appropriate and possible. Keep audience interested throughout your entire presentation. Remember that an interesting speech makes time fly, but a boring speech is always too long to endure even if the presentation time is the same. When using audio-visual aids to enhance your presentation, be sure all necessary equipment is set up and in good working order prior to the presentation. If possible, have an emergency backup system readily available.  Check out the location ahead of time to ensure seating arrangements for audience, whiteboard, blackboard, lighting, location of projection screen, sound system, etc. are suitable for your presentation. Have handouts ready and give them out at the appropriate time. Tell audience ahead of time that you will be giving out an outline of your presentation so that they will not waste time taking unnecessary notes during your presentation. Know when to STOP talking. Use a timer or the microwave oven clock to time your presentation when preparing it at home. Just as you don't use unnecessary words in your written paper, you don't bore your audience with repetitious or unnecessary words in your oral presentation. To end your presentation, summarize your main points in the same way as you normally do in the CONCLUSION of a written paper. Remember, however, that there is a difference between spoken words appropriate for the ear and formally written words intended for reading. Terminate your presentation with an interesting remark or an appropriate punch line. Leave your listeners with a positive impression and a sense of completion. Do not belabor your closing remarks. Thank your audience and sit down. Have the written portion of your assignment or report ready for your instructor if required.

1. Select a speech topic. This may seem like an easy task, but there are infinite public speaking topics. How do you choose the right one? How do you select a topic which is a perfect fit between you and your audience? Your topic leads to your core message — the entire presentation aims to deliver this core message to your audience.

2. Create a speech outline. Your speech needs structure. Without structure, your audience will either wonder what your core message is or they will lose interest in you entirely. Sadly, this step is often skipped to “save time.” A planned outline is vital..

3. Write the speech. Speech writing is an iterative process which begins with your first draft. Writer’s block can handicap speakers at this stage. Once the first draft is created, speech writing involves iteratively massaging your speech into its most effective form. Keeping your ego in check, you are wise to edit mercilessly. Remember that speeches should be written for the ear; adopting figures of speech will keep your speech from sounding like an essay or legal document.

4. Apply gestures, staging, and vocal variety. At this stage, the words are ready, but that’s all you have — words. A presentation is not read by the audience; it is listened to and watched.

5. Practice and solicit feedback. Great speakers seem natural when they speak, almost as though they are speaking the words for the first time. Nothing could be more wrong. Rehearsing your speech makes you a master of the content. Soliciting feedback and acting on it gives you confidence that your presentation will be a success.

6. Self-Critique: Prepare for the next speech. Although listed as the final step in the process, it’s really the first step in preparing for your next speech. After you’ve delivered your speech, examine your performance objectively. This will solidify lessons learned as you prepare for your next speech challenge.

5). Signposting gives an advance view of the organization of the whole presentation, or of the next section. A signpost is a device used to indicate what direction you are travelling in a speech. It lets the audience know what is coming up, and positions them to accept what you are saying. A signpost is a device used to indicate what direction you are travelling in a speech. It lets the audience know what is coming up, and positions them to accept what you are saying. They tell the reader or listener what kind of information to expect. By including certain words in your transitions, you can alert your audience that you are about to switch ideas.  Start with a signpost word and then complete the sentence for a transition. The following alphabetical list shows some of the most common signposts words and phrases: accordingly, additionally, as a result, consequently, for example - e.g., for instance, furthermore, hence, however, in addition, in brief, in conclusion fact, in other words, in the meantime, in short, meanwhile, moreover, naturally, nevertheless, nonetheless, obviously, on the contrary, so, that is (to say) - i.e, Therefore, Thus, to summarize, to sum up, and yet. We use signposting when we want to move to another explaination, to make a summary or conclusion, to open our speech, to give a data, the topic of the talk, a complete section, a new point in a list, a contrasting point, an example, and a point of special importance.



www.aresearchguide.com/3tips.html, Monday, January 9th, 2012.

http://teflpedia.com/Signpost_word. Monday, January 9th, 2012.

Speaking for academic presentation, A handout for Semester 3, 2010/2011.

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